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Great debate: Was Raja Dahir a son of Sindh?

SAMAA | - Posted: May 25, 2020 | Last Updated: 2 months ago
SAMAA |
Posted: May 25, 2020 | Last Updated: 2 months ago
Take part in the controversial debate by leaving a comment

It is generally believed that in the beginning of the 8th Century, Muslims entered India with the invasion of Muhammad bin Qasim, a young Arab general. In 712 AD, he besieged Debal and then occupied other towns in his attack to punish Sindh’s ruler Raja Dahir for not fighting off pirates who had looted some Arab dhows. It is said that Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir.
SAMAA TV ran a feature package on a debate that has erupted social media. The video feature stated the questions people were asking. These were its words:
“This year, as with every year, a crisis of identity has arisen,” said the presenter. “People were told that Sindh’s real son of the soil was Raja Dahir, who was killed while fighting a war for the right to self-determination.”
It went on to say that on social media Muhammad bin Qasim was being presented as a cruel man and an invader. A long debate has broken out. “People have even said when Punjab can make a commemorative statue for Ranjit Singh why can’t Sindh have one for Raja Dahir.”
In the Chachnama, an ancient book, it says that Raja Dahir married his own sister. He did this because of the edict of an astrologer or najoomi or fortune teller. Raja Dahir was his father’s younger son. And so, the elder son should have actually been the real ruler of Sindh. Upon the najoomi’s recommendation Raja Dahir took the crown from his brother. And he did not even take part in his last rites. “Can someone with such a character be Sindh’s hero?”
The Chachnama says that Raja Dahir was a Brahmin and the Aryans came from Central Asia to conquer India. And so, how can Raja Dahir be a son of Sindh?
The television package was based on the Chachnama, which was a 13th century Persian text rumoured to deal with the conquest of Hindustan by Muhammad bin Qasim. The text was translated in 1900 by Mirza Kalich Beg, known as the first Sindhi novelist. Since then scholars and historians and readers have used this text to try to comment on the arrival of Arab rulers in Sindh.
Debates on history often upset people and the discussions grow heated on social media. In the interest of learning more about what you think, SAMAA Digital would like to open up the forum to you, our reader, to ask your opinion on this particular debate. Our platform is a space where opposing opinions are welcome. We only request that you adhere to norms of polite speech.
Please leave a comment below. All comments will be moderated. Kindly add any links to references or books that you believe have increased your understanding of this part of Sindh’s history. Comments can be left anonymously, but it is always more credible if you post with your name and a small description of yourself, especially if you are an academic or historian.

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43 Comments

  1. Qurban Mahar  May 25, 2020 4:03 pm/ Reply

    Yes Raja Dahir is our Hero

  2. Anonymous  May 25, 2020 4:39 pm/ Reply

    Yes he was defender of his land.

  3. ثرمان فارس  May 25, 2020 4:41 pm/ Reply

    سب سے پہلے سب سے بڑا جهوٹ کہ محمد بن قاسم اسلام کے لیئے سندهه آیا تها.یہ جهوٹ ہے راجہ چهچه جو راجہ داہر کا اباپ تها نہ اموی خاندان کی مصیبتوں صعبتوں سے مارے اہل بیت کو پناہ دی ہوئ تهی سو اسلام بہت پہلے سندهه میں آچکا تها بلکہ انڈیا میں بهی مسلمانوں کی بستیاں تهیں جہاں وہ اپنی مذہبی رسومات اور عبادات آزادنہ کرتے تهے.اموی بادشاہ چونکہ اس وقت سپر پاور تهے یہ سندهه کے حکمرانوں کو خط لکهتے تهے کہ اہل بیت کو بیدخل کیا جائے لیکن وہ نہین مانتے تهے 5 مرتبہ سندهه پر چڑهائی کی گئی اور ناکامی ہوئ تب حجاج ملعون نے محمد بن قاسم کو بهیجا جو اس وقت درمیانی عمر کا تها یہ بهی بڑا جهوٹ کہ وہ 17 سال کا تها وہ 35 سال کا تها تقریبا اس نے سنده پر قبضہ کیا 712 م8ں تب حجاج جہنم وصل ہوا تو بادشاہ بهی تبدیل ہوگیا جس نے پرانے بادشاہ کہ ساری مشینری تبدیل کی جس میں محمد بن قاسم بهی تها جسے بغداد بلا کر ازیت دے کر مارا گیا اور تاریخ مین لکها کہ راجہ داہر کی بیٹیوں نے بادساہ کو بتایا کہ ہمیں محمف بن قاسم نے استعمال کرکے آپ کو بهیجا جس پر بادشاہ نے غصے مین محمد بن قاسم کو معزول کیا اور کهال میں سلوا کر طلب کیا اور زندان میں ڈال دیا جہاں وہ ایڑهیاں رگڑ کر مر گیا. عورتوں کی ہوس اور اہل بیت سے بغض نے سندهه پر قبضہ کروایا جسکا دفاع راجہ داہر نے کیا اس لیئے اسے سندهه دهرتی کا بیٹا ہی کہا جائے گا.آج بهی آج کی سپر پاور نے اسامہ بن لادن افغانستان سے طلب کیا جو طالبان نے نہیں دیا اور اسی کو بہانہ بنا کر افغانستان پر چڑهه دورے 12 لاکهه سے زائد بے گناہ افغانی شہید کردئیے لاکهوں افغان عورتوں کی عصمت دری کی انہیں جسم فروشی پر لگا دیا گیا محض ایک اسامہ بن لادن پر جسکو مرے کئی سال ہوچکے لیکن امریکی فوج آج بهی بیٹهی ہوئ ہے اسی طرح اموی بادشاہوں نے بحری قزاقوں کے قبضے میں سری لنکا سے آنے والی کشتی کو قبضے میں لیئے جانے کو بہانہ بنا کر سندهه پر چڑهائ کردی جبکہ یہ سب محض بہانہ تها اصل عزائم اور رہے جس کی وجہ سے سندهی آج بهی اہل بیت سیدوں کا احترام اپنی جان سے زیادہ کرتے ہیں جبکہ باقیوں کو وہ حمل آور قابض اور ظالم سمجهتے ہیں سندهیوں نے ہندومت سے اسلام کا سفر کیا ہے اور یہ اسلام ان تک اہل بیت نے پہنچایا مسلمان بادشاہوں نے نہیں اہل بیت کی قسمت اچهی تهی اگر حجاج کی زندگی میں سندهه پر قبضہ ہوجاتا تو جس طرح حجاج نے کتنے صحابہ رض کو شہید کرکے بیت اللہ کی زمیں خون سے بهر دی تهی اور حضرت زید بن حارث رض جو حضرت اسماء کے بیٹے تهے جو حضرت ابوبکر رض کی بیٹی آور آپ صلعم کی سالی تهیں کو شہید کرکے ان کا سر نیزے پر لگا کر ان کی والدہ کو کہا العیاز باللہ “بڑهیا ! دیکهه میں نے تیرے بیٹے کا کیا حال کیا” جس کے جواب میں حضرت اسماء رض نے کہا” تو نے اس کی دنیا خراب کی اس نے تیری آخرت برباد کردی ہے” یہ وہ تلخ تاریخ جو ہمیں نہیں پڑهائ جاتی اسی کہ وجہ سے آج ہمیں اندهی متعصب لگتے ہیں جبکہ سیکڑوں سندهی صحابہ رض کی قبروں کی موجودگی یہ ثابت کرتی ہے کہ سندهه محمد بن قاسم سے کہیں پہلے اسلام کی آمجگاہ بن چکا تها لیکن افسوس یہ کہ ہم نے تاریخ کو چهپا تو دیا لیکن مٹا نہ سکے.راجہ چهچه نے شق القمر کا معجزہ اپنی آنکهون سے دیکها تها اور آپ صلعم کی نبوت کو مان لیا تها تبهی نجاشی کی طرح اہک بیت کو مسلم بادشاہوں کے حوالے نہین کیا یہ الگ بات کہ اس کی موت کے بعد اقتدار کے چکر میں بغاوت ہوگئ جس سے سندهه کا دفاع کمزور ہوگیا جسکا فائدہ محمد بن قاسم کو ہوگیا.راجہ داہر نے پنڈتوں کے کہنے میں اپنے اقتدار کو بچانے کے لیئئ اپنی بہن سے علامتی شادی کی جس طرح آج بهی ایشوریا رائے نے ابهیشک بچن سے شادی سے پہلے ایک درخت سے شادی کی تاکہ نحوست ٹل جائے اور شادی کامیاب ہوجائے ایسی شادیاں ہندووں میں عام ہیں .راجہ داہربهی برہمن تها نحوست اٹهانے کے لیئے بہن سے علامتی شادی کی لیکن برا وقت آچکا تها.بہرحال میرے مطابق یہی وجوہات کہ راجہ داہر کو سندهه دهرتی کا بیٹا اور محمد بن قاس کو حملہ آور سمجها جاتا ہے.بات مزید ہوسکتی ہے لیکن طویل ہوجائے گی.

  4. Soofi sindhi  May 25, 2020 4:45 pm/ Reply

    The biggest proof that dahir is not a hero lies in the fact that not a single Sindhi hindu is named after him, had dahir been a hero there would have been thousands of sindhis with the name dahir in last 1300 years

  5. Soofi sindhi  May 25, 2020 4:50 pm/ Reply

    Dahir was not son of soil, he was a kashmiri

  6. Tariq Shaikh  May 25, 2020 4:50 pm/ Reply

    In my view, this debate should be left to academia to research and than presented later. As a Sindhi and Pakistani, i think it is more important for me to discuss and decide the contemporary issues like the Pakistan resolution 1940 and what was promised and actually delivered. How Sindh’s politics impacted and resources plundered by our rulers of newly formed state of Pakistan. How this loot and plundering is continuing today and impacting the lives of ordinary citizen’s. If i want to identify an imperialist power, i would like to doscuss the role of british imperialists and how their rule impacted sub continent and once decided should go back 1300 years back.

  7. Zahid  May 25, 2020 5:00 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir was son of soil while bin qasim attacked the sindh to loot treasure. Raja dahir is our hero who sacrificed his life while defending his land. Raja dahir is our pride our hero and we hate bin qasim

    • Mujeeb Ul Rehman  May 25, 2020 11:40 pm/ Reply

      عربَ ڪالھ به وحشي هيا اڄ به وحشي آهن!
      _______________________________________________سَعودي شهزادَي16زالن مان5زالون جُوا ۾ هارائي ڇڏيون.

      .
      اسلام کان اڳ توڙي بعد ۾ پوري انساني تاريخ اندر ڪنهن به غيرمسلم جو
      ڪنهن به هندو جو
      ڪنهن به ٻُڌسٽ جو
      ڪنهن به يهودي جو
      ڪنهن به پارسي جو
      ڪنهن به زرتشت ۽ ڪنفيوشس جو
      ڪنهن به عيسائي جو
      ڪنهن به سِکَ جو

      اهڙو ڪو مثال ئي نٿو ملي جو ڪوئي رياست جو شهزادو ٿي ڪري 16 زالن منجهان 5 زالون جُوا ۾ داءُ تي رکي هارائي…

      اسلام جي نالي ۾ 1500 سالن کان پوري دنيا لاء عذاب بڻجندڙ عربَ دراصل ڪالھ به وحشي هيا ته اڄ به وحشي آهن.

      2020 جي زماني ۾
      21 صديءَ ۾ به عربَ شهزادا ان حد تائين بدو وحشي ڪم ظرف ۽ عورت دشمن آهن ته اندازو لڳايو ته هي 1500 سال اڳ ڇا رهيا هوندا…!

      پر مقدر اسانجو ٽُٽُو جو اسان دنيا جي پهرين آزاد رياست ۽ آزاد قوم هجڻ باوجود هنن جي اسلام مان اڙجي ويا سين. ۽ اسان راجا ڏاهر کان 1947 واري هاڃَي تائين پنهنجي هزارن سالن جي مهذب خوشحال ۽َآزاد رياست واري حيثيت وڃائَي عربن جي اسلامَ ۽ پنجابين جي اسلامَ جا نفسياتي غلام ٿي پنهنجو سڀ ڪجھ وڃائي ويٺا سين!

      اسلامي شريعه ۾ هڪ ئي وقت وڌ ۾ وڌ 4 زالون رکڻ واري واضح شريعت يا قانون جي ابتڙ عرب سڳورا 21 صدي ۾ به 16 – 16 زالون رکن ته جائز

      اسلام جي نالي ۾ هي پوري روء زمين جي آزاد قومن ۽ رياستن تي حملا ڪري قبضا ڪن ته جائز

      پر پاڻَ عربَ سڳورا وري ڪنهن به عرب ملڪ ۾ دنياجي ڪنهن به مسلمان کي شهريت به نه ڏين!

      ۽ دنيا جي ڪنهن به مسلمان مرد کي عرب عورت زال طور به برداشت نه ڪن!

      پوبه اسان جا سادا ۽ لاعلم ماڻهو پروفيسر ڊاڪٽر انجنئر توڙي اديبَ دانشورَ ٿي ڪري هنن وحشين جي وڪالت ڪن

      خبر ناهي ته آخر ڪڏھن عربن ۽ عربن جي اسلام جي جهانسي مان اسانجي قوم ۽ وطن آزاد ٿيندا؟

      اسان جي سادن ماڻهن کي عربن ۽ عربن جي اسلام پاران اهو جهانسو ڏنو ويو آهي ته رمضان ۾ شيطان قيد هوندو آهي ۽ ان ئي رمضان ۾ پاڻَ عربَ سڳورا شراب به پيئن ته جوا به کيڏن!

      ۽ جُوا جي هڪ ئي داوَ ۾ -5-5 زالون به هارائن ته مسلم امه چپ!

      ۽ پاڪوستاني ملان جي غيرت ايٽي ون جون درجن سوا گوريون کائي سمهي ٿي رهي!

      جيڪا غيرت هتان جي مظلوم قومن کي ڪافر ۡ غدار جي فتوي ڏيڻ لاء سدائين بي چين رهندي آهي.

      جيئن عربَ رسول-خدا- حضرت علي ۽ حضرت امام حسين کي ڪڏھن سمجهي نه سگهيا
      بلڪل ايئن پاڪوستاني ملو ڪڏھن به عربن جي اصليت کي سمجهي نه سگهندو…!

      پروفيسرساجدسومرو

  8. Aijaz Ali  May 25, 2020 5:09 pm/ Reply

    Just a common sense question. Bin Qasim is said to be 17yrs old boy when he invaded Sindh. he is mentioned as son in law of Hajjaj bin Yousif with having a wife and 3kids. The question is what age did he marry ? How many years does it take a man to be expert in sword fight. How many battles had he fought before invading a large professional army of Sindh. And why a great conquerer in very short period of 3yrs of his rule was butchered and dead body sent to Iraq.

  9. امر فیاض  May 25, 2020 5:10 pm/ Reply

    ابنِ قاسم اور راجہ ڈاہر معاملے کو سانحہِ کربلا سے جوڑ کر تو دیکھئیے۔ اور تواریخ پڑھیں۔ وہ راہب کون تھا جس کے 7 بیٹے کربلا میں کام آگئے؟ تاریخ کہتی ہے کہ وہ حسینی برہمن دت تھا۔
    راجہ ڈاہر کون تھا؟ وہ بھی برہمن تھا۔ حسین کے قاتل کون تھے؟ بنی امیہ۔
    ابنِ قاسم کون تھا؟ وہ بنی امیہ خاندان سے ان کا کماندار تھا۔
    بھلا لاہور میں بیبی پاکدامن کی درگاہ کا کیا قصہ ہے؟
    یہ کون بیبیاں تھیں جو لاہور تک آئیں؟ یہ کون سادات تھے جو پناہ کی غرض سے یہاں آئے تھے۔ کیا ان کے ساتھ برہمن ساتھ نہیں تھے؟
    اب یاد کریں شوکت خانم ہسپتال کے لیے سنیل دت آمد
    دت صاحب نے خطیر رقم عطیہ کی تھی۔ لیکن اس نے بولا کیا تھا؟
    “ہمارے بڑوں نے کربلا میں ساداتوں کے ساتھ اپنا خون بہایا تھا سو یہاں میں کیسے پیچھے ہٹوں گا”
    اب گتھیاں ملاتے جائیں۔۔ سنیل دت کی شادی مسلمان نرگس سے ہوئی تو شور اٹھا تھا۔ لیکن جمیعہ ہند کی کیا فتوا آئی؟ کہ یہ اندر سے مسلم ہے
    آج تک دت خاندان محرم کے ایام میں سیاہ کپڑے پہنتے ہیں، فلمیں شوٹ نہیں کرتے۔ سنجے دت پر ایک الزام یہ بھی تھا کہ وہ مسلمانوں کے لیے نرم گوشہ رکھتے ہیں اور انہیں ہتھیار سپلائی کیے۔
    یہ تو آج کی بات ہے۔ اب ذرا 13 سئو برس واپس جائیں۔ راجہ ڈاہر اور حجاج کی نفسیات کو معائنہ کریں
    درحقیقت وہ برہمن تھا، جس نے متاثرینِ کربلا کے خاندان کو پناہ دی تھی، اور یہ بات بنو امیہ کے لیے آنکھ کا کانٹا بن رہی تھی۔ سندھ پر حملے پہلے بھی ہوئے لیکن اب زبردست جواز بن گیا، سو انہوں نے ابنِ قاسم کی کمان میں حملہ کیا۔ سادات کو سبق سکھانے کے لیے، دھرتی ہتھیانے کے لیے ، مال بنانے کے لیے وغیرہ۔۔
    پوری مسلم دنیا آج بھی دو مکاتب میں بٹی ہوئی ہے۔ ایک بنی ہاشم اور دوسرا ہے بنو امیہ۔ جو بنو امیہ کو مانتے ہیں ان کا ہیرو ابنِ قاسم ہے۔ جو بنو ہاشم کے حامی ہیں وہ اس پر تبرہ کرتے ہیں۔
    رہی بات ہم جیسوں کی جو سب سے پہلے اپنی دھرتی کا نعرہ لگاتے ہیں، وہ کہتے ہیں، جیو اور جینے دو ! اگر پیار سے آئے ہو تو ہمارے کھلے بازو آپ کا استقبال کریں گے، اگر حملہ کرنے آئے ہو تو چاہے ساتویں آسمان کی سند بھی لے کر آئے ہو تو ہم کٹ مر تو جائیں گے، لیکن تمہارے ہاتھ بیعت نہیں کریں گے۔

  10. بلال احمد  May 25, 2020 5:23 pm/ Reply

    جو بھی سرکاری کتابوں سے پڑہا اسے بعد میں یکطرفہ پایا. جھوٹ کو بھی اس کمال سے آراستہ کیا گیا کہ سچ کا گمان ہوا. شاید اسی لیے اس موضوع پر لوگ سرکاری موقف کو مشکوک سمجھتے ہیں.

  11. Ashok Kumar  May 25, 2020 6:04 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir was the real son of this soil.

  12. Muhammad Ali Panhwar  May 25, 2020 6:04 pm/ Reply

    There’s a whole tribe named called Dahiri ڏاهري who are descendents of Raja Dahir.

  13. Ashok Kumar  May 25, 2020 6:06 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir was the real son of this soil. He embraced loyal death instead of handover the Muslim women of Ehl-e-Biat.

  14. Shahid  May 25, 2020 6:19 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is true hero of this land .present pakistan Qasim was looter an arab looter can’t be our hero.Arab took huge amout of Gold and took women and sold out them in Street of Bagdad present Iraq.

  15. Aadil Sindhi  May 25, 2020 6:34 pm/ Reply

    Obviously, Raja Dahir
    And also Want to say All Urdu Media don’t mention Karachi And Sindh . Karachi is in Sindh Forget your Dream about karachi.
    And one more thing don’t show Sindhi as criminal in your dramas .

    • R.L.Rajput  May 25, 2020 8:56 pm/ Reply

      Definitely, Raja Dahir is our true hero and Muhammad Bin Qasim was villain. By now scholars have proven the Chachnama book as highly controvercial which was written by relative of Muhammad Bin Qasim to justify their invasion of Sindh. I am myself a Hindu and even in these days a Hindu does not marry even with a caste fellow female hence question of marrying sister does not arise. It is also not understandable how a Hindu astronomer can suggest incestrual marriage to other Hindu? This claim apparently is put up by Arab writer to support their unjustified invasion of Sindh. We have always been taught wrong history but now we must come up with courage to live by truth and teach our young generation the real history.

  16. Anonymous  May 25, 2020 6:47 pm/ Reply

    Actually, the question is “being a Muslim today, what we think about our Hindu ancestors”. So, the answer is simple, because they were Hindus we should not be happy with them, no matter they were our forefathers or Rajas or Maharajas. So, being a Muslim I don’t want to get associated with Dahir. He was Hindu… that’s the end of everything.

    I would also like to condemn, Samaa Tv for starting this debate. This is a clash of religion and culture, definitely people will be divided.

  17. Sarmad  May 25, 2020 7:04 pm/ Reply

    We are sindhi and we all are proud on son of soul maharaja Raja
    Sindh is above than All religions, all facts
    Raja Dahar is our first martyrs

  18. Raja  May 25, 2020 8:11 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir was son of the soil

  19. R.L.Rajput  May 25, 2020 8:38 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is undoubtedly a local hero and Muhammad Bin Qasim a villain. Historians have now established that Chachnama is highly controvercial book which was wriitten by relative of Muhammad Bin Qasim. Further, even nowadays Hindus nowhere in world marry to even their castefellow female then how could Raja Dahir would? Even how can a Hindu Brahman or astrologer suggest incestrual marriage? This allegation was apparently propaganda of Arabs to justify their attack on Sindh. Had Raja Dahir been a Muslim, he would have been Pakistan’s hero but alas we have always been taught twisted history in our country because truth is bitter. This debate is highly important and we must correct our history and should learn to live with truth.

  20. Lord B.  May 25, 2020 9:28 pm/ Reply

    Many comments aren’t even factual like Zaid bin Harith wasn’t the son of Hazrat Asma bint Abu Bakar. It also seems like Indian fuel propaganda in the shape of article when the state of Pakistan recognises Muhammad bin Qasim as first Pakistani that makes him my hero.
    Besides, it’s the the Hindu Indian narrative that Raja Dahir was a hero and it helps them if we grow the same ideas among ourselves eventually to question the two nation theory.
    You ask how two nation theory? The answer is that the essence of the theory is that Hindus and Muslims are two different nations and not at all the same despite sharing ancestry, spice pallets and food preferences.
    In the words of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) whole Muslim ummah is like one body and if one part is in pain then whole body stays uneasy. That tells us that doesn’t matter if Raja Dahir is son of the Soil or my real brother if he is non Muslim and fighting against the Muslims then he isn’t a hero but a villain.
    As far as the story of Ahle bait women goes it’s absolutely fallacious and has no merits. He was a Hindu who abducted Muslim women and Muhammad bin Qasim defeated him and killed him for that.
    And Muhammad bin Qasim was also not an Ummawi Prince but he was killed by an Ummawi Caliph. Also please do read any Muslim historian other than of our sub continent or of our sub continent but who are respected like Farishta and ibn e Khaldoon they all portray Muhammad bin Qasim I. Positive manner.
    With this my two cents are over on the topic with the gist that Muhammad bin Qasim was our hero and not that Raja Dahir who slept with and married his own sister.

  21. Anonymous  May 25, 2020 9:59 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir was definitely a hero. This issue should not be “religionized” as many are done so here.

  22. Mujeeb Ul Rehman  May 25, 2020 10:28 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is real Hero of Sindh and ibn e Qasim was the rabber.

  23. Mujeeb Ul Rehman  May 25, 2020 10:29 pm/ Reply

    Dahir is a real Hero and son of soil .

  24. Khalil Ahmed lakho  May 25, 2020 10:42 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is Son of Sindh

  25. Umair  May 25, 2020 10:57 pm/ Reply

    Honestly, this issue is neither worth discussing nor putting our time and efforts. Just a waste of resources. Our country has a lot more issues of current era to discuss and resolve, like revival of economy, etc. amid post coronavirus spread and impact of lockdown. So folks, try to understand your priorities. We are a seventy year old country and nation, must rise now to distinction and excellence.

  26. قاضی آصف،،،،،،qazi.qaziasif@gmail.com  May 25, 2020 11:26 pm/ Reply

    تاریخ کو اگر مذھبی بنیادوں پر دیکھیں گے تو وہ تاریخ نہیں، مذھبی فرمانبرداری ہوگی کہ، جس کے مذہب کی بات ہو رہی ہے۔ لے دے کر اسے ہی درست ثابت کرنا ہے۔ سائنسی طور پر جو تاریخ لکھی جائیگی وہ تاریخی واقعات کا تجزیہ کر کے غیرجانبدار نتائج اخذ کرنے ہیں۔ ابھی تک بن قاسم اور راجہ داہر کے ساتھ یہی ہوتا رہا ہے۔ ان کو ملکی سظح پر کبھی تاریخ کے طور پر نہیں لیکن مذہبی طور پر ہی لیا گیا ہے۔سندھ میں صورتحال مختلف اس لئے ہے کہ یہاں کے لوگ تاریخ کو مذہبی تناظر میں کم، حقائق کے کو زیادہ اہمیت دیتے رہے ہیں۔ یہ
    بھی ایک حقیقت ہے کہ راجہ داہر کو ہیرو ہونے کی مہم کسی ہندو نے نہیں بلکہ مسلمانوں نے چلائی۔ کیونکہ وہ تاریخ کو جدید سا/ئنس کے تناظر میں دیکھتے ہیں
    ہمیں اس مسئلے کو تاریخی حقائق کو مد نظر رکھ کر دیکھنا چاہیئے۔
    جو ہمارے پاس تاریخی ماخض موجود ہیں وہ اکثر عربوں، ایرانیوں کے لکھے ہوئے ہیں۔انہوں نے تاریخ کم مذہبی آپ بیتی زیادہ لکھی ہے لیکن اس کے باوجود وہ دانستہ، نادانستہ بہت سے حقائق بیان کر گئے ہیں۔ ابن العربی ہو، یا ابن خلدون، ان سے قبل چچ نامہ، ،تاریخ معصومی، تاریخ فرشتہ، تحفت الکرام ان سب میں یک طرفہ واقعات لکھے ہوئے ہیں۔ لیکن سلام ہے ان مئورخین پر جنہوں نے بہت سی باتیں غیرجانبدارانہ بھی کیں ہے۔
    پہلا سوال یہ ہونا چاہیئے کہ عربوں نے سندھ پر کتنے حملے اور کیوں کیئے، ان کی بنیاد مذہبی تھی یا مسائل کچھ اور تھے۔ مختصرا سمجھنے کی کوشش کرتے ہیں۔ اس وقت عرب سپر پاور کے طور پر ابھر رہے تھے، وہ خطے میں اپنے مفادات، معاشی، سمندری راستوں کی حفاظت، محفوظ تجارت کی اہمیت تھی۔ ان کیلئے بہت سے ممالک کو فتح کرنا ضروری تھا۔ جیسے بہت سی مہمات کے بعد ایران کا فتح ہونا اہم واقع تھا۔ اعجاز الحق قدوسی لکھتے ہیں کہ، جب ایران پر عرب حملے ہورہے تھے تو ایران کے حکمرانوں نے اپنے سرحدی ملک سندھ کے حکمرانوں سے مدد مانگی۔ ہاتھی عربوں کے پاس نہیں ہوتے تھے، تو ایران نے بہت سے عرب حملے سندھ کے حکمرانوں کی مدد سے ناکام بنائے۔ حکومت سندھ نے اپنی خارجہ پالیسی میں کسی سپر پاور کے بجائے اپنے پڑوسیوں کی مدد کرنا بہتر سمجھا۔ اور سندھیوں کا ایران کے حوالے سے عربوں سے ٹکرائو، کافی عرصے سے جاری تھا۔ اور عرب ممالک سے بہت سے لوگ سیاسی پناہ کیلئے سندھ آئے اور اس وقت راجہ ڈاہر کے حکومت نے عربوں کے ستائے ہوئے ہزاروں عربوں کو سیاسی پناہ دی۔ یہ دوسرا سبب تھا۔ تیسرا سبب سری لنکا سے عرب کے تجارتی تعلقات تھے، وہاں کے حکمران، دنیا میں نئے ابھرتے سپر پاور سے تعلقات بنائے رکھنے کیلئے ان کا اتحادی تھا۔ انہوں نے آٹھ سمندری جہازوں پر تحفے، تحائف، غلام، کنیزیں خلیفے کے لئے روانہ کی تھی جو دیبل بندر کے قریب قزاقوں نے لوٹ لئے۔ یہ ذہن میں رکھنا چاہئے کہ 711 عیسوی میں سندھ کی سرحدیں کشمیر سے ایران اور کردوں کے علاقے تک تھیں۔ سندھ یہ خوشحال ملک تھا۔ تو ان کو فتح کرنے کیلئے آٹھ حملے پہلے ہو چکے تھے۔ نبی کریم کے بعد ہر خلیفے نے سندھ فتح کرنے کی کوشش کی لیکن ناکام رہے۔ خود حجاج بن یوسف نے بن قاسم کو بھیجنے سے پہلے دو کوششیں کر کے دیکھیں تھی جو ناکام ہوئی تھیں اور جن جنرلیوں کی رہنمائی میں لشکر بھیجے گئے وہ جنرل مکران کے ساحل پر قتل ہوگئے۔ اب سوال یہ ہے کہ راجہ داہر برہمن تھے اور اسی دھرتی ہے تھے، کس نے کس تاریخ نویس نے لکھا ہے کہ وہ باہر سے آئے تھے؟؟ یہ تو چچ نامہ میں بھی نہیں لکھا۔ وہ مکمل طور پر اس دھرتی ہے بیٹے تھے۔ یہ ایک تاریخی اور علمی بحث ہے لیکن ہمیں یہاں پر بہت سی باتیں مختصر کرنا پڑ رہی ہیں۔ سندھ میں کسی نے یہ نہیں کہا کہ راجہ داہر کا دور حکومت آئیڈیل تھا۔ اس پر شدید تنقید کی جا سکتی ہے۔ وہ بھی ایسا ہی ایک بادشاہ تھا، جس طرح بادشاہ ہوتے ہیں۔ لیکن انہوں نے اپنے ملک پر ہر حملے کو ناکام بنایا، اور آخر اپنے وطن کی حفاظت کرتے شہید ہو گیا۔ یہی ان کے عظمت کا سبب ہے۔ کہ وہ وطن پر قربان ہوگیا۔ یہ سبب نہیں کہ وہ بادشاھ تھا۔ لیکن یہ بھی تاریخی حقیقت ہے کہ وہ اس حد تک ظالم نہیں تھا جس حد تک حجاج بن یوسف تھے یا خود بن قاسم یہاں آنے سے پہلے تھے۔ بن قاسم جن یہاں آئے وہ سترہ نہیں اٹھائیس سال کے تھے لیکن وہ کم عمر جرنیل تھے۔ ان کو دیبل سے لیکر سیہون، نیرون کوٹ، برھمن آباد، اروڑ میں شید قسم کی مزاحمت کا سامنا کرنا پڑا۔ آپ عربوں کی تاریخ ہی پڑھ کر دیکھیں، ان علاقوں میں کوئی ایک ایسا علاقہ نہیں جو بن قاسم نے ایک ہفتے، ایک مہینے میں فتح کیا ہو۔ ان کو چھے چھے مہینے گھیرائو کر کے بیٹھنا پڑا اور چھے چھے مہینے مزاحمت کا سامنا رہا۔ راجہ داہر کی حکومت کو قصور یہ تھا کہ انہوں نے عربوں کے خلاف پڑوسی ممالک کی مدد کی، عرب ممالک سے آئے لوگوں کو سیاسی پناہ دی۔ اور اپنے سمندری تجارتی راستے کو تحفظ فراہم کیا۔ لیکن سندھ میں اسلام سے شناسائی بن قاسم سے کئی سال پہلے ہو چکی تھی۔ رہی بات کہ راجہ داہر نے اپنی بہن سے شادی کی۔ برہمن تو اپنے چچا زاد میں بھی شادی نہیں کرتے۔ چچ نامہ کی اس بات کو سب مانتے ہیں لیکن چچ نامے میں ہی بن قاسم کو جانور کی کھال میں بند کرکے خلیفے کی خدمت میں مردہ حالت میں پیش کیا گیا، اس بات کو تسلیم نہیں کیا جاتا۔ چچ نامے میں مذہب کی بنیاد پر واقعات کو چنا جاتا ہے، جیسے آپ کی رپورٹ میں بھی ہوا۔حملہ ک پیچھے معاشی اسباب ہی تھے، مذہب تو ایک بنیاد تھی۔سندھ سے مال غنیمت کے طور پر تیرہ ہزار دو سو من سونا ان کو ملا اور چالیس ہزار غلام اور کنیزیں ان کو ملیں۔ ان میں راجہ داہر کی دو بیٹیاں بھی شامل تھیں اور راجہ داہر کی ایک بیوی سے بن قاسم نے شادی کرلی۔ اور جس کیلئے کہا گیا کہ اور جس بہن سے راجہ داہر کی شادی کی بات کی جا رہی ہے انہوں نے برہمن آباد کے معرقے میں عرب فوج کولوہے کے چنے چبوا دیئے تھے۔ راجہ داہر بغیر کسی مذہب کی شناخت کے سندھ کے اس لئے ہیرو ہیں کہ انہوں نے وطن کی حفاظت کی، بن قاسم اس لیئے جابر ہیں کہ انہوں نے کسی کے ملک پر مذہب کے جھڈے تلے حملہ کرکے ہزاروں لوگوں کو خون بہایا اور قبضہ کیا۔کتابوں کے حوالے میں پہلے ہی دے چکا ہوں۔ کہیں گے تو تفصیلی تحقیقی مضمون بھی حاضر کریں گے۔

  27. Mushtak  May 25, 2020 11:28 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is the son of soil who sacrificed his life for dear homeland Sindh, Bin Qasim was an invader who was sent to attack Sindh by Hajjan bin Yousif(The most cruel person in the history of Islam)..

  28. UMAIR SHORO  May 25, 2020 11:40 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir was King of Sindh, he sacrificed his life in defence of his Birthplace (sindh) against Arab imperialist Ummayad Empire. Dahir was not against Islam as many people know Raja Dahir sheltered many Muslims who were rebeled against Ummayads. ummayad empire was not considered in Rashidoon Caliphate. Cousin of ibn Qasim Hajaj bin Yousuf who instructed ibn qasim to invade Sindh was well known cruel personality in Muslims. If Ibn Qasim was just commander of an Empire and he was bound to follow Hajaj ibn Yousuf orders. Raja Dahir was son of Sindh because he fought against attackers till his last breath and did not surrender before an empire that was much powerful than his country.

  29. anonymous  May 26, 2020 12:11 am/ Reply

    Bin Qasim or Raja Dahir, who is real hero? It really makes me smile that in order to get freed girls from jail, Arabs conquered the whole Sindh and ruled the valley for more than 300 years. If we analyze this myth, it really compels us to think where this is justified to attack any country for few girls and loot their whole wealth, grab their treasures, destroy their sacred places, rape thousands of innocent girls, and assassinate thousands of guiltless people. Thousands of Sindhi girls were sold out in Arab bazaars and children were made slave. This argument looks same as the USA gave in 2001 that Muslims destroyed two buildings of the USA, therefore two Muslim countries (Afghanistan and Iraq) be attacked and destroyed completely. One thing must be clear that all invaders attack other countries only for power and money. It was just the lust of treasure buried in Somnath temple due to which Mehmood Ghaznawi attacked it for 17 times and at last it succeeded and looted gold, pearls and wealth of the temple, even though he made 17 attempts to conquer it but he never bothered to perform Umra or Haj in his whole life. The people of Indian subcontinent have an amazing mental level. Our heroes are those who are notorious as villains in all over the world. From Hajaj Bin Yousuf to Nadir Shah, from Mehmood Ghaznavi to Ahmed Shah Abdali who all were just robbers, we have created them as warriors on the right side. Raja Dahir could have run away to save his life but he did not and he fought against Arabs till his last breath and was finally martyred along with his sons for the sovereignty of his motherland. He is, however, portrayed negatively in history chapters while the outsiders who attacked our motherland just for power and money have been made real heroes. Let us change our approach toward indigenous rulers and outsider invaders.

  30. Mumtaz Ahmed Shar  May 26, 2020 12:22 am/ Reply

    There is no any factor of doubt that Bin Qasim was invader and attacked Sindh and lead to massacre of Thousands of Sindhis and kidnapping of women and selling them in Iraq. Raja Dahar fought for the defence of Sindh and fought till his martyrdom for the Sindh.

  31. Sarang Joyo  May 26, 2020 12:23 am/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is son of soil and our national Hero

  32. Mumtaz Ahmed  May 26, 2020 12:25 am/ Reply

    Raja Dahar is the real hero of Sindh while Bin Qasim is invader. Sama TV should change the narration of the topic and should not be biased against our great King Raja Dahar. The lady in voice is biased towards Raja Dahar but has not spoken any word against Bin Qasim and Umayad caliphate. Seems she wanted to have environment against the Raja Dahar and truth but in favor of invador, killer, looter Bin Qasim

  33. umair shoro  May 26, 2020 12:38 am/ Reply

    Raja dahir was King of Sindh, he sacrificed his life in defence of his Birthplace (sindh) against Arab imperialist Ummayad Empire. Dahir was not against Islam as many people know Raja Dahir sheltered many Muslims who were rebeled against Ummayads. Ummayad empire was not considered in Rashidoon Caliphate. Cousin of ibn Qasim Hajaj bin Yousuf who instructed ibn qasim to invade Sindh was well known cruel personality in Muslims. Raja Dahir was son of Sindh because he fought against attackers and did not surrendered before an empire which was much powerful than his country.

  34. Imtiaz Larik  May 26, 2020 12:38 am/ Reply

    First of all if any ruler who fought for his soil/land or territory where he occupied. I believe that he own that country and he defend his territory so how it could be villain in the history. We should remove the glasses of religious thoughts from our eyes and be realistic . I m of this opinion that Raja Dahir is the Hero of Sindh .

  35. Tarique Siyal  May 26, 2020 3:51 am/ Reply

    Being a journalist and having experience of TV, Radio and print media ,watch your TV’s package in professional manner. Sorry to say it is not balance at all and based on one sided opinion. Your package reference quoted from Chachnanama, which was written on religious basis history. This is actually delima of our media that majority of reports and packages of TV channels based one-sided opinions. For good and sober journalism their is strong need of trainings, hard work, research and dedication. But, majority TV channel owners and their higher position holders are in the race of ratings and due to that professional journalism is foraway from these channels.
    People of Sindh without any religious baisis believes that Raja Dahir is hero, because he fought against invaders. Even, at least one my Sindhi Muslim friend name after Raja Dahir.

  36. Iqbal Tareen  May 26, 2020 8:38 am/ Reply

    Please ignore the previous draft version and post the following version:

    Let me first congratulate Sama TV for finding guts to start such an important and open discourse on history. I hope they maintain the thread of journalistic integrity to accommodate diverse perspectives in this dialogue.

    In the first place, the Raja Dahir was more native Sindhithan Humayun, Akbar and Aurangzeb were Indians. He was much native Sindhi than anyone living, or dead has been a Pakistani including Jinnah. Raja Dahir died defending his country and nation against an Arab invasion lead by M.B. Qasimwho according to many renowned historians, invaded Sindh because of Raja Dahir had given asylum to the family members and followers of Hazrat Ali who had fled persecution by Umayyad Caliphate, Yazid ibn Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan.

    Now let us settle the issue of Raja Dahir marrying his sister. First, the “Chachnama” is a lot of fiction and less of authentic history. Letus assume Raja Dahir had married his sister so why are we judging him by our belief system? If you are really interested in stretching this subject, then let us re-visit the creation of mankind from an Islamic perspective. Let us try to understand how the entire mankind started from the original couple, Adam and Eva, and that also from a self-pollinated beginning.

    The way it is rationalized that Adam and Eve conducted inter-marriages between their children (Sisters& brothers). Here is what ibn Katheer said: It was narrated concerning them, as quoted by more than one of the earlier and later scholars, that Allah prescribed that Adam (peace be upon him) should marry his daughters to his sons as a matter of necessity. But they said: A male and female were born from each pregnancy, so he would marry the female from one pregnancy to the male from another. The sister of Habeelwas ugly and the sister of Qabeel was beautiful. The Qabeel wanted to keep her for himself and not give her to his brother, but Adam insisted that they should offer sacrifices and whichever brother’s sacrifice was accepted by Allah would win her hand. So, they offered sacrifices and it was accepted from Habeel, but it was not accepted from Qabeel. And their story was told by Allah in His Book. End quote (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/82)

    So according to all Abrahamic religions, God commanded Adam and Eve to wed their children in intermarriages. So what is this hoopla about RajaDahir’ s marriage with sister? No one has claimed that their marriage was ever consummated. But we know that the marriages of Habeel and Qabeel’ s siblings were consummated.   

    Iqbal Tareen, USA
    May 25, 2020

  37. Anonymous  May 26, 2020 6:29 pm/ Reply

    Some segments of Pakistan’s mainstream media are always out to denigrate Raja Dahir, eighth century king of Sindh. They build premise of their argument mainly on two points: 1. Raja Dahir was supportive of pirates in Arabian sea. 2. He was immoral who wedded his own sister. Both the narratives have been written down in the chachnama which was apparently diary of an official of invading Arab army.
    While doing so the media fails to take even cursory glance at the character and biographical sketch of Viceroy Hujjaj bin Yousif and Muhammad bin Qasim. Here are certain points need to be considered for this debate to be meaningful.
    1. Muhammad bin himself was not a full fledge commander. He was told not to act independently in Sindh without orders from the Viceroy. Hence, it was Hujjaj who was remotely controlling conquest of Sindh and Muhammad bin Qasim was not independtly taking decisions.
    2. Hujjaj has been dubbed by all the contemporary historians as one of the cruelest rulers on the earth. He invaded Mecca and besiged the holy city and murdered Abdullah bin Zubair who has always been revered by later historians as legitimate caliph. Even Hujjaj never hesitated to misbehave and hurt the companions of the Holy Prophet pbuh. Because of him the celebrated companion of the prophet pbuh Ans b Malik had to write to the then caliph with complaint of Hujjaj.
    3. Those who denigrate Raja Dahir they take support from Chach nama. However, Chach nama was originally written in Arabic and went missing for centuries. Not a single original arabic manuscript is extant. It is said that last orginal manuscript of chachnama fell into hands of its translator Ali bin Hamid Kufi in Sindh. Kuffi a Sultanate nobleman had fallen from grace at Delhi court in thirteenth century. He translated the book in Persian and presented it to Sultan to revive his own status in Delhi court. It is generally believed that he himself destroyed the original manuscript because he tampered with original text in translation and made certain additions to justify expansion of Delhi Sultanate across India. Hence it can’t be totally relied upon. Further, even Chach nama tells us about prosperity of Sindh and its people before the invasion.
    4. Although, it is generally believed that Muhammad bin Qasim was sent to Sindh because certain sea pirates had looted Arab flotilla and were being patronized by Raja Dahr. However, in his letter to Hujjaj Raja Dahr completely disowns the pirates. Again, there is no mention of any campaign by Muhammad bin Qasim against any pirate activity in sea. Thus we may deduce that there were no pirates in Arabian sea and this was a lame excuse by the invaders to justify their aggression.
    4. Due to failures of Abbasid and umayyad governors Indus valley soon became divided into various smaller principalties without any legitimate and stable government centuries.
    5. great nations celebrate their ancient heroes. Even today Iranian in their written histories celebrate their pre Islamic king’s Cyrus the great, Darius the great, Noesherwan aadil or chosroes 1, although they were pre Islamic. Noesherwan was fire worshipper or majusi.
    6. Mughals of India, who are favourites of media here, used to celebrate their forefathers Taimur and Chengiz Khan. It is a fact that on the one hand Chengiz was not Muslim and on the other hand he ruined the bustling Islamic civilizations in central and west Asia ie Samarkand, bukhara and baghdad and slew substantial percentage of humanity.
    7. History in ancient, medieval and modern period is written from perspective of conquerors. Tamerlane, himself a Muslim, went out in a senseless bloodletting in history. He invaded and destroyed four most powerful Islamic Empires of his age ie Delhi Sultanate , Ottoman Empire but declared his war as jehad against infidels. His diary of Indo Pak inavasion is only one example. Second he attacked and put the Ottoman sultan Byazid in a cage and virtually restrained him from conquering Constantinople which was on verge of being conquered at the hands of latter. Hence, diaries or histories like chachnama can not be blindly accepted because they are not free from bias.

  38. Anonymous  May 26, 2020 7:14 pm/ Reply

    Samaa tv deserves congrats for coming up with such discussions and debates. Generally Raja Dahar is reviled for following reasons: 1. Raja Dahir was supportive of pirates in Arabian sea. 2. He was immoral who wedded his own sister. Both the narratives have come to us through chachnama which was apparently diary of an official of invading Arab army.
    While doing so the media fails to take even cursory glance at the character and biographical sketch of Viceroy Hujjaj bin Yousif and Muhammad bin Qasim. Here are certain points need to be considered for this debate to be meaningful.
    1. Muhammad bin himself was not a full fledge commander. He was told not to act independently in Sindh without orders from the Viceroy. Hence, it was Hujjaj who was remotely controlling conquest of Sindh and Muhammad bin Qasim was not independtly taking decisions.
    2. Hujjaj has been dubbed by all the contemporary historians as one of the cruelest rulers on the earth. He invaded Mecca and besiged the holy city and murdered Abdullah bin Zubair who has always been revered by later historians as legitimate caliph. Even Hujjaj never hesitated to misbehave and hurt the companions of the Holy Prophet pbuh. Because of him the celebrated companion of the prophet pbuh Ans b Malik had to write to the then caliph with complaint of Hujjaj.
    3. Those who denigrate Raja Dahir they take support from Chach nama. However, Chach nama was originally written in Arabic and went missing for centuries. Not a single original arabic manuscript is extant. It is said that last orginal manuscript of chachnama fell into hands of its translator Ali bin Hamid Kufi in Sindh. Kuffi a Sultanate nobleman had fallen from grace at Delhi court in thirteenth century. He translated the book in Persian and presented it to Sultan to revive his own status in Delhi court. It is generally believed that he himself destroyed the original manuscript because he tampered with original text in translation and made certain additions to justify expansion of Delhi Sultanate across India. Hence it can’t be totally relied upon. Further, even Chach nama tells us about prosperity of Sindh and its people before the invasion.
    4. Although, it is generally believed that Muhammad bin Qasim was sent to Sindh because certain sea pirates had looted Arab flotilla and were being patronized by Raja Dahr. However, in his letter to Hujjaj Raja Dahr completely disowns the pirates. Again, there is no mention of any campaign by Muhammad bin Qasim against any pirate activity in sea. Thus we may deduce that there were no pirates in Arabian sea and this was a lame excuse by the invaders to justify their aggression.
    4. Due to failures of Abbasid and umayyad governors Indus valley soon became divided into various smaller principalties without any legitimate and stable government centuries.
    5. great nations celebrate their ancient heroes. Even today Iranian in their written histories celebrate their pre Islamic king’s Cyrus the great, Darius the great, Noesherwan aadil or chosroes 1, although they were pre Islamic. Noesherwan was fire worshipper or majusi.
    6. Mughals of India, who are favourites of media here, used to celebrate their forefathers Taimur and Chengiz Khan. It is a fact that on the one hand Chengiz was not Muslim and on the other hand he ruined the bustling Islamic civilizations in central and west Asia ie Samarkand, bukhara and baghdad and slew substantial percentage of humanity.
    7. History in ancient, medieval and modern period is written from perspective of conquerors. Tamerlane, himself a Muslim, went out in a senseless bloodletting in history. He invaded and destroyed four most powerful Islamic Empires of his age ie Delhi Sultanate , Ottoman Empire but declared his war as jehad against infidels. His diary of Indo Pak inavasion is only one example. Second he attacked and put the Ottoman sultan Byazid in a cage and virtually restrained him from conquering Constantinople which was on verge of being conquered at the hands of latter. Hence, diaries or histories like chachnama can not be blindly accepted because they are not free from bias.

  39. kazim hussain mahesar GHAMKUSARI  May 26, 2020 8:21 pm/ Reply

    Raja Dahir is the son of soil & real hero of Sindh.while Muhamnad Bin Qasim entered from DEEBAL harbour at Thatta Sindh, plundered valuable articles of gold and diamond .After conquering Sindh, he abducted women from sindh & presented them as a gift to Arab royal family members.So he was a robber,not a hero because Islam already existed in Sindh.

  40. ALI Sindhi  May 26, 2020 8:27 pm/ Reply

    Yes. Raja Dahir was defender and king of Chach/Sindhu Empire .

  41. Salman  May 26, 2020 9:58 pm/ Reply

    Instead of proving foreigners as our heroes we should come forward and embrace our martyrs . Raja Dahir fought against the oppressors and died. History was brutally fabricated to support a particular narrative.

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